1 Eylül 2012 Cumartesi
THE EFFECTS OF TURKISH RADIO BROADCASTS MADE IN GERMANY ON TURKISH PEOPLE LIVING IN GERMANY SOURCE/KAYNAK:Metin Kasım (International Journal of Arts & Sciences, CD-ROM. ISSN: 1944-6934 :: 4(13):355–376 (2011) Copyright c 2011 by InternationalJournal.org Uyarı:Bu çalışma ABD'de bildiri olarak sunulmuş olup, orijinal metindeki şekil ve tablolar burada bozulmaya uğramıştır.Çalışmanın aslına ulaşmak için yukarıdaki adresi kullanabilirsiniz.) In this study, the effects of the radios that broadcast in Turkish for Turks in Germany on Turkish people living there are probed. As a result of survey study carried out, it was found out that of Turks’ first cause of listening Turkish broadcasts in Germany is to listen Turkish music and the second is their desire to hear developing news both in German and in their own language Turkish. It was confirmed that, by means of Turkish broadcasts, these people, majority of whom are workers in Germany, feel themselves like in their homeland, Turkey and that their morale and enthusiasm for work increase and they provide a better integration with Germans. Keywords: Radios, Turkish broadcasts, Integration. INTRODUCTION The word radio is the short version of the word Radiophone that consists of Latin word radius (irradiation) and Greek word phone (audio) (Tekinalp 2003:55). Radio broadcasts are the audio broadcasts transmitted to the public via electromagnetic waves, data networks and other ways (Avsar and Öngören 2003:333). Ease of transport that downsize of radio receivers provided so much as to fit into even cell phones, enables to reach and listen to broadcasts at home, work, in bus and every similar environment. Such a mass medium plays a very significant role for politicians, advertisers and those who have messages to deliver to the public (Kasım 2009:118-119). Studies conducted in America reveal that majority of the people think they can get the most brief and concise news via radio. While listening to radio, people do not have to discontinue their works as they do in newspaper and television; it is enough to give ear. Radio is the best way to create images in mind because listeners try to animate the sounds in the way, to whom and to what environment they belong. Radio is, at the same time, a personal environment because listeners perceive broadcasts as if they address directly to themselves (Chantler and Haris 1997:1-5). Radio broadcasts have five basic functions like notification, educating, propaganda, presentation of goods and services, entertaining, persuasion and actuation. Performing these functions, attitude and behaviour alterations occur in listeners. Notification, the first of these functions, is raison d'etre of mass media and common aspect of all (Aziz 2002:55). Metropol FM, the subject of our study, is the first and only private radio of Germany, established in Berlin in 1998 that broadcasts in Turkish. Although Turkish broadcasts were made for half or 1 hour in German State Radios previously, those were not private radio stations. Metropol FM was established with the aim of meeting news and cultural needs of Turkish people consisting second large population after the Germans. Metropol FM has also been providing over 7000 Turkish businesses to reach their target groups with advertisements in Berlin. Although the 355 356 Metin Kasim manager and the workers of Metropol FM are Turkish, the owner is a German media group. 60% of Turkish people in broadcasting area of Metropol FM are listening to this station. That number reaches 450.000 people. Despite of the fact that broadcasting language of Metropol FM is Turkish, broadcasts about bureaucracy and education are made in German (Ergün:02/03/2010 dated interview). A BRIEF OVERVIEW FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RADIO BROADCASTS IN THE WORLD The radio broadcasting and the first radio journalism in the world started in Pittsburgh city of United States of America in 1920, in a radio station named KDKA (Kaptan 2002:9). Before this date, however, the fact that pilot radio broadcasts were made in France, Germany and England is known (Aziz 1996:11-16). When election news started to be broadcasted from KDKA radio station in Pittsburgh USA, the number of listeners to whom the broadcast reached was 500-2000 (Cankaya 2000:15), along with the increase in radio receiver sales, broadcasts reached to millions of people in a short time. The first regular radio broadcasts in Europe started with BBC in England in 1922. Broadcast quality and neutralism of the BCC have set an example to the whole world. The second radio station in Europe started broadcasting in France. These are followed by radio stations in Soviet Unions in 1923. Then the whole Europe, Asia, the continents and lastly Africa countries started radiobroadcasts (Aziz 2002:8). Radiobroadcasts in Germany started in 1923 (Breitkopf 2007:1) while the broadcasts in Turkey started in 1927(Cankaya 2000:16). Radio became a mass media tool in 1930s in Europe out of America. While Americans considered radios in commercial terms, European countries needed interfering broadcasts propounding public wale. In those years, as well as music broadcasts and radio plays, news about war before the World War Second also started to take part. The time that radio was listened by large masses, was after the Word War First. While radio production became an industrial branch in America that consider radio in commercial terms, the fact that radio broadcasts could also be used for advertising purposes was realized (Pekman 2000:13). The World War Second started with deliberately false news over a radio: One SS president (Nazi protective squadron) and four SS soldiers entered into Gleiwitz radio station as civilians and tied radio staff, closeted them in the basement in August 31st, 1939. After a few gunshots to the air, with announcements in both German and Polish, the war officially began (Falkenberg 2005:79). According to the announcements, that radio station was captured by Polish soldiers and Poland violated the boundaries of Germany. Hitler explains the reason for the declaring the war with statement as “In order to end this mind-damaging event, I have no other options but to use force against force. German army will continue until the end of the war with a huge persistence for the pride and rights of German society. I expect all German soldiers to perform their responsibilities to the full extent in accordance with military traditions…” (Diller 1980:301). Goebbels, the minister of propaganda, imposed a ban on listening foreign-origin radios to keep the sole trade of news source in 1942: Not only listeners, but those who listen and transfer the information they gained to third parties, will be punished (Klinger 1983:58). In the first half of 1940, 2400 people were arrested for that reason. Although nevertheless the penalties were increased to executions, listening foreign-origin radios could not have been prevented at all (Dussel 2004:109). Radio happened to reach large masses in the World War Second and it was used for propaganda against other countries as well. Pirated-radio stations, established for that very reason, delivered both true and false news all together to enemies and formed the opinion that the broadcasts that were being made were through the enemy countries by giving place to particular The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 357 commentators (Bektas 2002:164). Radio was identified by Goebbels as the modernist and the most significant tool in terms of affecting masses. German radiobroadcasts played an important role in government propaganda until the end of 1950s (wikipedia.org: 19.05. 2010). Today in Germany, foreign broadcasts are allowed to operate however; the stations have certain obligations to comply with the rules. After the World War Second, Germany started to allow foreign broadcasts owing to industrialization and development efforts they had started. The most important reason of this is, providing the adaptation of the workers brought to Germany for working to German laws and lifestyle in a short span of time. Firstly, in German State radio, for that reason, short-time broadcasting was allowed for these nationalities living in Germany. Although foreigners have been allowed to establish their own radio stations in the recent time, there are appalling conditions for those foreigners to comply. Moreover, not all who want to can broadcast except German. Having limited number of radio frequency is the major obstacle for this. It is thought that this problem will have been overcome with the development in internet technology and widespread use of it. THE SURVEY INTENDED TO MEASURE THE EFFECTS OF TURKISH RADIO BROADCASTS MADE IN GERMANY ON TURKISH PEOPLE LIVING IN GERMANY AND THE EVALUATION Methodology The Aim of the Study To measure the effects of Turkish radio broadcasts on Turkish people living in Germany. The significance of the Study The reason why the survey, the subject of this study, has been conducted in Germany is that radio broadcasting in Germany is highly regarded compared to in any other countries in the world. It has been inferred from our study that, radio was used as a propaganda tool during especially the World War Second and that the radio was highly paid attention rather than any other communication tools. While financial power and permit are adequate to establish a TV station, the fact that appalling conditions have to be followed to establish a radio station has been elicited. Accordingly, being able to make broadcasting in a language except for German in Germany and the effects of these on people speaking that language have been considered commendable. Scope and Limitations of the Study In the study, to what extent Turkish people, the most populous nationality in Germany except for Germans themselves, are influenced from Turkish radio broadcasts in Germany is examined. The reason why Berlin has been selected for sample area is that both that majority of Turks live here and that Metropol Fm broadcasting 24 hours continuously established in Berlin. The survey study was performed between February 1st, 2010 and June 30th, 2010. The Method of the Study In order to determine the habit of listening to radio of Turkish people in Germany, total 537 subjects, chosen with simple random sampling, were applied to survey method based on face-to358 Metin Kasim face interview. The survey was tried out on 50 people before the actual survey and then application took part. The survey was conducted on the subjects, ages of whom vary from 11, having ability to answer the survey, to 66, the eldest group participating in the survey. 54,9% of 537 people who joined in the survey, were women, 43,6% were men. Demographic features and the habit of listening to radio were tried to be measured with various questions. SPSS program was used for survey evaluation, relations between demographic features and the habit of listening to radio were probed, and significance levels of the answers the subjects gave were specified. Assumptions of the Study 1- Turkish radio broadcasts made in Germany contribute to the integration of Turkish people with German people. 2- Turks living in Germany are recovered from feeling of loneliness since they think as if they are in their homeland through the agency of Turkish radio broadcasts. 3- Since there is only Metropol Fm as a private radio station broadcasting for Turkish people in Germany, Turkish people listen to this radio station because they have no other alternatives. The survey questions intended to measure the effects of Turkish radio broadcasts made in Germany on Turkish people living in Germany and the evaluation Genders of the Subjects Total 537 people, 43.6% of which is male, 55.8 of which is female, participated in the survey. Ages of the Subjects The ages of the subjects are between 15 and 66. 68% of the subjects consist of the young between 15-35 and those who may be considered middle-aged. This situation is in accordance with the aim of the study. Because the subject of our study also includes the effects of radio broadcasts on the young people’s cultural and Turkish developments. Birthplaces of the Subjects 53,3 % of the subjects are Germany born, 43,2% are Turkey born and 3,5% left this question unanswered. Birthplaces of the participants 286 53,3 55,2 55,2 232 43,2 44,8 100,0 518 96,5 100,0 19 3,5 537 100,0 Germany Turkey Total Valid Unanswered Total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 359 Birth cities of the Subjects 57,2 of German-borns claimed to be born in Berlin. For that reason, this result normal since the survey was made in Berlin. As to Turkey-borns came from those cities in percentage order: 5,5% Istanbul, 2,8 % Samsun, 2,2% Izmir, 1,9% Erzurum, 1,5% Elazıg, 1,3% Rize. And the other cities have not been stated for being lower than 1%. Considering population of the cities in Turkey, the fact that the most participant came from Istanbul is natural. The purposes of the subjects’ arrival in Germany 19,2% the subjects consist of people who moved in a family living in Germany after they had come from Turkey. 15,6% the subjects are those who married to a person living in Germany and gained right to stay in Germany. Sometimes while speaking between each other, Turks use the words “imported bride” for women “imported groom” for men who came to Germany afterwards. Educational Status of the Subjects Subjects’ educational statues are; 7,4% primary school, 14,7% secondary school, 56,2% high school, 13,4% university, 5,8% master. However, it is impossible to evaluate this result as in Turkey. Because a number of students whose German is not counted adequate are directed to vocational high schools even if their lessons are very good and they are not accepted in regular high schools. Accordingly, a majority of this population, registered as high school graduate, is devoid of higher education. That situation also means that those people are devoid of qualified jobs, too. Total monthly income of the subject’s families Total monthly incomes and percentage of the subjects are as; 18,1% to 1000 euros, 41,7% 1000- 2000 euros, 20,5% 2001-3000 euros, 5% 3000-4000 euros and 8,2% 4001 euros and over. As evaluating this condition, it can be said that the most of those who have 1000 or under euros total monthly income in fact support themselves with unemployment benefits or have part-time jobs. For the group consisting of those with 1000-2000 euros and with 41,7% rate, generally 1 or 2 person works. Those who generate the largest group are counted as the lowest income group and Educational Status? 40 7,4 7,6 7,6 79 14,7 15,1 22,7 302 56,2 57,6 80,3 72 13,4 13,7 94,1 31 5,8 5,9 100,0 524 97,6 100,0 13 2,4 537 100,0 Primary school Secondary school High school University Master total Valid unanswered total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total 360 Metin Kasim they scrape through their lives if unemployed ones are not considered. As to the group having 2001-3000 euros income and consisting 20,5% are either families that have high-level education or the families in which 2 members work. The families that have 3001 and over euros, and total of which are 13,2%, can be said to have more comfortable lives respectively according to Germany conditions. Subjects’ dwelling durations in Germany When subjects’ dwelling durations in Germany are considered, it is seen that the largest group is those who have been residing 16 and over years with 76,4% rate and the smallest group is those who have been residing less than 1 year with 09% rate. And percentage total of those who have been residing in Germany for 6 or over years is 91,8%. This rate both elucidates Turkish profiles and shows how Turkish radio broadcasts are important in terms of meeting the cultural needs of Turks. Subjects’ frequency rate of listening Turkish broadcasts How long do you listen to the radio broadcasting inTurkish? 103 19,2 19,7 19,7 111 20,7 21,2 40,8 94 17,5 17,9 58,8 72 13,4 13,7 72,5 88 16,4 16,8 89,3 56 10,4 10,7 100,0 524 97,6 100,0 13 2,4 537 100,0 Less than 1 hour a day 1-2 hour a day more than 2 hours a day 1-2 hours a week less often never total Valid unsanswered total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total How many years have you been living in Germany? 5 ,9 1,0 1,0 23 4,3 4,4 5,4 41 7,6 7,9 13,2 42 7,8 8,1 21,3 410 76,4 78,7 100,0 521 97,0 100,0 16 3,0 537 100,0 Less than 1 year 1-5 year 6-10 year 11-15 year 16 years and over Total Valid Unanswered Total Number Percent Valid Percent Percent with total The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 361 While 38,2% of the subjects explain that they listen to Turkish radio broadcast for over an hour, 19,2% of them stated that they listen less than an hour. And those who listen to the broadcasts for 1-2 hour or less, often have 29,8% rate. Total of this group and the one in which nobody listens with 10,4% rate, is 40,5%. If to comment on, the first reason why this group listens less often or never is that only Metropol Fm broadcasting via FM band is available in Berlin and that the energiser is not increased to desired level because of legal restrictions. For that reason, while it can never be listened in some neighbourhoods, sometimes it can be listened with static sounds. The other reason is that listening radio in work hours or in workplaces is forbidden. The third reason is that Turks who already cannot listen to radio in the workplace in the day, watch Turkish TV via satellite dish or cable TV. The fourth reason that may take part in the last is that the subjects might not like music or broadcasting policies of Metropol FM, which is the single radio station they can reach in Berlin, or they might identify themselves within a different ethnic identity although they came from Turkey. Subjects’ frequency rate of listening to German broadcasts Considering subjects’ frequency rate of listening German broadcasts, it is found that the highest percentage is 24% with those who never listen, the second is 27,7% with those who listen 1-2 hours in a week or less. Total of those who listen 1-2 hours and those who listen over 2 hours is 28,1%. This part generally consists of German-borns with no problem in the language. And those who listen German broadcasts less than 1 hour a day consist of a mass that want to learn goingson in Germany via a German canal and they generally know German only as much as to understand. The place where the subjects listen to radio at most While 45,8% of the subjects listen to radio in their cars, secondly 37,8% listen at home and thirdly 8,4% listen in their workplaces. This situation both shows us in which environments the target group can be reached with and that the messages to be prepared are required to be formed according to this. How long do you listen to radio broadcasting in German? 93 17,3 17,8 17,8 86 16,0 16,5 34,3 65 12,1 12,5 46,7 48 8,9 9,2 55,9 101 18,8 19,3 75,3 129 24,0 24,7 100,0 522 97,2 100,0 15 2,8 537 100,0 1-2 hour a day more than 2 hours a day 1-2 hour a week less often never total Valid unanswered total Number Percent Valid percent Less than 1 hour a day Percent with total 362 Metin Kasim Subjects’ frequency rate of listening to radio for news 5 options were presented to subjects for answering this question and they were asked to state how long they listen to radio for these aims. These are respectively; “for news, listening to music, for fun, for finding out advantageous goods and services, for not feeling alone” options While the total number of the subjects who state they always or often listen to radio for news is 54,4%, a high rate of 89,9% is gained adding those who sometimes or rarely listen to radio for that aim. According to this result, the importance of news function of radio is clearly revealed. The frequency of the subjects’ radio listening for the music broadcast When the subjects are asked: “How often do you listen to the radio for musical purposes?”, the rate of answers saying “always” and “often” is 74.7%. When adding “rarely” and “sometimes” as possible answers to this total, the listening rate happens to rise up to 93.2%. Therefore, these rates show the importance of music in people’s everyday life, and that they mostly listen to the radio in order to enjoy the music displayed. Consequently, in the cases it is intended to reach a wide audience it will be effective to privilege music broadcasts or insert messages among these music broadcasts. The frequency of the subjects’ radio listening for fun When analysing the subject’s habits concerning radio listening for fun; the total of answers saying “always” and “mostly” reaches 40.2%. The frequency of the subjects’ radio listening to find out advantageous goods and services When looking at the subjects’ habits concerning radio listening to find out advantageous goods and services, it occurs the opposite situation: the answer saying “I do not listen at all” generates the largest rate with 43.6%. The rate of answers saying “mostly; 6.7% and always 4.5% remains very low. This result makes it more difficult for advertisers. In this case, advertisers are expected to develop alternative ways of having audience listening to ad broadcasts. In which place do you listen to radio at most? 203 37,8 39,3 39,3 45 8,4 8,7 48,1 246 45,8 47,7 95,7 12 2,2 2,3 98,1 10 1,9 1,9 100,0 516 96,1 100,0 21 3,9 537 100,0 at home in workplace in car subway other total Valid unanswered total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 363 The frequency of the subjects’ radio listening for not feeling alone While 47.7% of the subjects assert that they “do not listen to the radio at all” with the aim of not feeling alone, 14.7% of them answered saying “rarely”, 14.9% answered “occasionally”. The answers saying “mostly” and “always” both remained at 9.5%. Here, it is possible to make two kinds of comment: first, 47.7% of the subjects never find themselves alone; and secondly, the subjects did probably not understand the question. The interpretation of the subjects’ answers to the question “For what purpose do you listen to the radio?” Significance level of the answers that the subjects gave to the question “for what purpose do you listen to radio” (the number of subjects) Min. Max. Mean Std. deviation Listening music 517 1 5 4,16 1,04 For news 518 1 5 3,65 1,25 For fun 506 1 5 3,11 1,41 For not feeling alone 517 1 5 2,15 1,38 For finding out advantageous goods and services 512 1 5 2,02 1,16 The subjects are presented 5 optional answers to this question and are asked to specify their radio listening frequency for these purposes. These options are “to listen to the news”, “to listen to music”, “for fun”, “finding out advantageous goods and services”, and “not to feel alone”. Since the listening rates are measured in separate tables for each one of these options, the mean level of each option is considered as being more relevant than the rates between them. Amongst the answers to the question: “For what purpose do you listen to the radio?” (max. Mean level:5), the answer “to listen to music” comes in first position with a mean level of 4.6, “to get news” comes in second position with a mean level of 3.65, “for fun” is in third position with 3.11, “not to feel alone” is in fourth position with 2.15, and “finding out advantageous goods and services” comes in fifth position with 2.02, i.e. People saying they listen to the radio for listening to ads comes last. The last data constitutes a relevant factor that advertisers must take into account. 364 Metin Kasim 2-2-18- The subjects’ most listened radios What radio station do you listen most? (write only one of them). 74 13,8 14,8 14,8 335 62,4 67,1 82,0 10 1,9 2,0 84,0 6 1,1 1,2 85,2 3 ,6 ,6 85,8 1 ,2 ,2 86,0 13 2,4 2,6 88,6 7 1,3 1,4 90,0 1 ,2 ,2 90,2 5 ,9 1,0 91,2 6 1,1 1,2 92,4 3 ,6 ,6 93,0 2 ,4 ,4 93,4 4 ,7 ,8 94,2 1 ,2 ,2 94,4 1 ,2 ,2 94,6 1 ,2 ,2 94,8 2 ,4 ,4 95,2 1 ,2 ,2 95,4 1 ,2 ,2 95,6 1 ,2 ,2 95,8 1 ,2 ,2 96,0 1 ,2 ,2 96,2 2 ,4 ,4 96,6 1 ,2 ,2 96,8 2 ,4 ,4 97,2 3 ,6 ,6 97,8 2 ,4 ,4 98,2 1 ,2 ,2 98,4 1 ,2 ,2 98,6 1 ,2 ,2 98,8 1 ,2 ,2 99,0 1 ,2 ,2 99,2 1 ,2 ,2 99,4 1 ,2 ,2 99,6 1 ,2 ,2 99,8 1 ,2 ,2 100,0 499 92,9 100,0 38 7,1 537 100,0 Kiss FM Metropol FM Kral FM RBB Klasik FM Meltem FM Jam FM RTL mbat Jazz FM Energy FM Cem FM stanbul FM Deutschland FM RSZ Klomik FM best FM Radyo Multi Kulti Anadolu'nun Sesi Yasam FM Radyo Brocken Bayırlı FM Özgür FM Spree FM Park FM Paradise FM nfo FM TRT FM BBC World Berliner Rundfunk Süper FM Brandenburg FM HaberTürk Dost FM Radyo Alaturka Europa FM Açık Radyo Total unanswered Total Number Percent Valid Percent Percent with total The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 365 Amongst the subjects’ answers concerning the radio they listen to the most, Metropol Fm, which broadcasts from Berlin 24 hours a day in Turkish language, comes in first position with 62.4% and, Kiss Fm is in second position with 13.8%, Jam Fm comes in third position with 2.4%. Kiss Fm, which constitutes 13.8% of the subjects interviewed, broadcasts both in Germany in German language and in Turkey in Turkish language. Considering the fact that broadcast in Turkish language can be listened from the internet, the broadcast (German or Turkish) each one of these group respectively listen to, cannot be assessed for sure. Nevertheless, we may say that even though the majority of people who listen to German broadcastings belong to new generation, which are born in Germany, received German education. Speeches proceeded in Turkish language show obvious marks of German accent. In order to have this young people showing interest in broadcasts made in Turkish languages, it results relevant to make announcements in Turkish but displaying foreign music broadcasts mainly. That is why it is necessary to raise consciousness in those various Turkish channels about the necessity of making this kind of broadcasting. Reasons why the subjects listen to Metropol FM 62.4% of the subjects mostly listen to Turkish broadcasts. Amongst the different reasons which make them listen to Metropol Fm broadcasting programs in Turkish, we get the following answers: “to listen to Turkish music” is in first position with 51.4%, “to listen to the news” comes in second position with 26.4%. A majority of 12.1% assess that they had to listen to the radio station they mentioned because there is not any other radio available. This is an issue that must also be taken into account, since in a way, it points out the need of new Turkish radio stations, which would be more likely to appeal to this group. The subjects opinion concerning their own knowledge of German language While 50.1% of the subjects assessed that they spoke German very well, 25.3% of them stated that they knew German well, 17.3% stated they knew German enough to communicate, 4.3% stated that they knew little German , 1,3% stated that they did not know German at all, and 1.7% did not answer to this question. While other questions are answered, not answering this one makes us come to the following conclusion “they are not able to say that they do not know For what purpose do you listen to Metropol FM at most? 142 26,4 28,5 28,5 276 51,4 55,3 83,8 15 2,8 3,0 86,8 1 ,2 ,2 87,0 65 12,1 13,0 100,0 499 92,9 100,0 38 7,1 537 100,0 for news listening to Turkish music for fun for finding out advantageous goods and services because there is no other Turkish radio total Valid unanswered total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total 366 Metin Kasim German”. In this case, the total rate of people who do not know German increases to 3%. Considering that 75,4% of the subjects state that they know German very well, after having proceeded to face to face interviews, it can be considered that by saying they know German very well they mean that they understand and speak comfortably. The subjects’ choice of mass media in order to meet their cultural needs Amongst the subjects’ choice of mass media to meet their cultural needs, television comes in first position with 58.7%, internet comes in second position with 14.9%, radio comes in third position with 14.0%, and newspapers being in fourth position with 8.8%. Opinion of the subjects concerning Metropol Fm’s broadcasts in German Turkish people living in Germany and answering the question “Do you think broadcasting in German language is useful?” replied “I agree” and “I strongly agree” in 60.7% of the cases. This rate also shows the importance given to German language by Turkish people. While the total of answers saying “I disagree” and “I strongly disagree” reaches 17.9%, 18.4% of the subjects said they had doubts concerning the answer. Opinions of the subjects concerning Metropol Fm’s contribution to Turkish culture Metropol FM importantly contributes to sustenance of Turkish culture 28 5,2 5,4 5,4 46 8,6 8,8 14,1 88 16,4 16,8 31,0 206 38,4 39,4 70,4 155 28,9 29,6 100,0 523 97,4 100,0 14 2,6 537 100,0 I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree total Valid unanswered total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree For meeting your cultural needs, with what tool do you want Turkish broadcasts to reach to you? 315 58,7 60,2 60,2 75 14,0 14,3 74,6 47 8,8 9,0 83,6 80 14,9 15,3 98,9 6 1,1 1,1 100,0 523 97,4 100,0 14 2,6 537 100,0 TV radio newspaper internet other total Valid unanswered total number Percent Valid percent Percent with total The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 367 Concerning the issue dealing with the Metropol FM’s contribution to the revival of Turkish culture by broadcasting in Turkish language 24-hour a day in the city of Berlin, 67.3% of the subjects mentioned it as contributing, 13.8% mentioned it as not contributing, and 16.4% of them were not sure about the answer. Although this radio broadcasts especially Turkish pop music, Turkish classical and Turkish folk music, radio managers claim that they are contributing to spread Turkish culture since they play Turkish music. 67.3% of the subjects also agree with this claim. Opinions of the subjects concerning Turkish broadcasts’ contribution in the improvement of their level of Turkish speaking 52.5% of the subjects (66% of them being aged between 15-35 years-old) think that Turkish broadcasts contribute to improve their Turkish. This is a relevant ratio, even if only one Turkish radio broadcasting in Berlin can have subjects thinking that way. Now, let us say there would be more than one radio station using Turkish language, then it can be said that young Turkish people grown in Germany can take better advantage of these radio broadcasts and improve their Turkish even more. The subjects’ concerning young Turkish people’s Turkish broadcasts listening Young people must listen to Turkish broadcasts more often 15 2,8 2,9 2,9 38 7,1 7,3 10,1 86 16,0 16,4 26,5 191 35,6 36,5 63,0 194 36,1 37,0 100,0 524 97,6 100,0 13 2,4 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered Turkish broadcasts make a major contribution to development of Turkish 51 9,5 9,9 9,9 75 14,0 14,6 24,6 105 19,6 20,5 45,0 166 30,9 32,4 77,4 116 21,6 22,6 100,0 513 95,5 100,0 24 4,5 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız toplam Number Percent Valid percent I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered Percent with total 368 Metin Kasim While a majority of subject (73,5%) agree with the fact that our young people must listen more often to Turkish broadcasts, a minority (9,9%) of them disagree with this idea. Subjects’ evaluation concerning the relation between Turkish broadcasts and their ability to integrate and remember Turkish language 50.6% of the subjects do not agree with the following statement: “I almost forget Turkish but for Turkish broadcasts”. The most significant reason of this statement lies in the fact that subjects use Turkish language because evolving in a Turkish-speaking context (family, Turkish people and acquaintances). As a result, they do not forget Turkish language. A substantial mass, (31.8%) agree with this idea. This group is composed of people who do not get enough opportunity to use Turkish language in their social background. Enhancing Turkish broadcasts is more important for this group compared to the first group. The subjects’ opinion concerning the increasing number of radio stations broadcasting in Turkish While 71.3% of the subjects agree with the idea that “the number of radios broadcasting in Turkish must be increased”, a minority of them (9.7%) do not agree. The fact that 71.3% of the The number of radios broadcasting in Turkish must be increased 21 3,9 4,1 4,1 31 5,8 6,1 10,2 76 14,2 14,9 25,0 150 27,9 29,4 54,4 233 43,4 45,6 100,0 511 95,2 100,0 26 4,8 537 100,0 kesinlikle katılmıyorum katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız toplam Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered I almost forget Turkish but for Turkish broadcasts 165 30,7 32,0 32,0 107 19,9 20,7 52,7 73 13,6 14,1 66,9 84 15,6 16,3 83,1 87 16,2 16,9 100,0 516 96,1 100,0 21 3,9 537 100,0 kesinlikle katılmıyorum katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 369 subjects do actually agree, indicates the existence of a need to create more radio stations broadcasting in Turkish. The role of Turkish broadcasts in ensuring the unity of the Turks in Germany While 57% of the subjects agree with the idea that “Turkish broadcasts provide Turkish unity and solidarity in Germany”, 18.4% of them do not agree, and 21.4% of them are doubtful. Turkish broadcasts’ contribution concerning the integration of Turkish people in Germany While 50.5% of the subjects agree with the idea that “Turkish broadcasts make a significant contribution to integration of Turks in Germany”, 22% of them do not agree, and 24.6% of them are doubtful. In fact, the ratios given concerning integration issue, which is the motive of this research, corroborate both our assumption and the reason why German authorities allowed Turkish broadcasts: they did so aiming at ensuring integration. Turkish broadcasts make a significant contribution to integration of Turks in Germany 51 9,5 9,8 9,8 67 12,5 12,9 22,6 132 24,6 25,3 48,0 169 31,5 32,4 80,4 102 19,0 19,6 100,0 521 97,0 100,0 16 3,0 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered Turkish broadcasts provide Turkish unity and solidarity in Germany 40 7,4 7,7 7,7 59 11,0 11,3 19,0 115 21,4 22,1 41,2 169 31,5 32,5 73,7 137 25,5 26,3 100,0 520 96,8 100,0 17 3,2 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered 370 Metin Kasim Considerations regarding increasing programs that enable Turkish-German integration in Turkish speaking broadcasts A majority of 67.4% thinks that the following idea is positive: “Programs intended to connect Germans with Turks in broadcasts must be increased”, while a minority of 11.2% thinks it is negative and 18.4% is doubtful. The fact that people who agree with this idea represent a major part makes it necessary to integrate Turkish and German people through radio programs. It shows that this idea is important in order to enable integration. This might be possible by giving way to Turkish people and Turkish language in radios broadcasting in German language, and by giving way to German people and German language in radios broadcasting in Turkish language, then creating connexions between the two in order to allow cultural exchange. The frequency of Turkish broadcastings’ listening on the internet in Germany While 11.6% of the subjects do not share the following idea: “I listen to Turkish broadcasts mostly via internet”, a group of 34% does. That means that 34% of the subjects can make use of internet in order to listen to the radio broadcastings. In this case, these people can access to all the radios that broadcast in Turkey or in any part of the world and which provide internet broadcasting. The frequency of Turkish broadcastings’ listening on the radio in Germany 60.2% of the subjects listen to the Turkish radio broadcastings on the FM frequency (on the radio, in other words), and 13.9% of them do not listen to these broadcastings on the radio. Which means one thing: although there is such a communication mean as internet, most people still use the radio. The most relevant reason lies in the fact that radio device can be found and listened everywhere, while internet can only be used in specific places where there is an internet connection and computer available. The subjects’ opinion concerning the necessity of Turkish broadcastings in Germany While 69.4% of them think Turkish broadcastings in Germany are necessary, 19.6% of them think they are unnecessary; 10.6% of them are doubtful, and 2.4% of them did not answer. Some people belonging to the minority of 19.6% who thinks the Turkish broadcastings are I listen to Turkish broadcasts mostly via internet 121 22,5 24,4 24,4 100 18,6 20,2 44,6 90 16,8 18,1 62,7 107 19,9 21,6 84,3 78 14,5 15,7 100,0 496 92,4 100,0 41 7,6 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 371 unnecessary, have Turkish origins and speak Turkish but identify themselves as having Kurdish origins (based on ethnical considerations). The opinion of Turks who constantly listen to Turkish broadcastings, concerning the effects of these broadcastings on their level of German While 63.9% of the subjects do not share the following statement: “I could not improve my German adequately since I constantly listen Turkish broadcasts”, 18.4% of them agree, 13.6% of them are doubtful, and 2.1% of them did not answer. The effects of the Turkish broadcastings on the working performance of the subjects While 37.6% of the subjects do not share the following idea: “Turkish radio broadcasts affect my work performance positively”, 31.4% of them share this point of view, and 27,9% are doubtful. The fact that the rate of doubtful people is so high can be explain by the fact that they have never thought about this question so far. Consequently, it can be said that those people who do not share this view, work in professions involving intellectual skills and are therefore worried about the fact that radio messages might possibly confuse their mind. Turkish radio broadcasts affect my work performance positively 103 19,2 19,8 99 18,4 19,0 38,8 150 27,9 28,8 67,6 100 18,6 19,2 86,8 69 12,8 13,2 100,0 521 97,0 100,0 16 3,0 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered 19,8 I do not think Turkish broadcasting in Germany as so much necessary 236 43,9 45,0 45,0 126 23,5 24,0 69,1 57 10,6 10,9 80,0 53 9,9 10,1 90,1 52 9,7 9,9 100,0 524 97,6 100,0 13 2,4 537 100,0 katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız Total Number Percent Valid percent Percent with total I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered 372 Metin Kasim The effects of the Turkish radio broadcastings on the satisfaction of the subjects concerning their living in Germany While 41.4% of the subjects share the following idea: “Since Turkish radio broadcasts make me feel like in Turkey, I like living in Germany.”, 30% do not share this view, and 24.8% of them are doubtful. Those who share this idea constitute the majority. That is to say, 41.4% of the subjects can fulfil their feeling of belonging to their country when they listen to Turkish broadcastings. For this reason, they enjoy living in Germany and are more productive for both themselves and German people. The relationship between the subjects’ low level of German and the reason why they listen to Turkish broadcastings While 71.6% of the subjects do not share the following idea: “Since my German is not good, I have to listen to Turkish radio broadcasts”, 19.3% of them share this point of view, and 7.6% of them are doubtful. CONCLUSION When we compare the idea of “The Turkish radio broadcastings in Germany contribute to the improvement and their ability to integrate and remember Turkish culture”, which is the first hypothesis of the study with the survey’s results, we can see that a large majority (67.3%) agree with this idea, scoring a mean level of 3.79 (max mean:5). As a result, we can consider our hypothesis as being relevant. The second hypothesis of the study: “Turkish radio broadcastings that are performed in Germany help Turks speaking better Turkish.” 52,5% of the subjects (66% of whom are aged between 15 and 35 years-old) think that Turkish broadcastings improve their level of spoken Turkish. This is a relevant ratio. If Turkish radio stations that broadcast in Berlin are able to have the subjects coming to such statements, then we can consider that young people who are brought up in Germany would make much more use of these programs and improve even more their Turkish, in cases there would be more than one well Turkish speaking radio stations. Bayraktar, the Turkish Broadcastings Manager of WDR (West Deutshe Rundfunk), whose opinions concerning this issue were heard, declares that thanks to the Turkish broadcastings they have been performing for 46 years in Köln, they significantly contributed to the preservation and correct use of the Turkish language (Interview of Bayraktar processed on August 10th, 2010). Since my German is not good, I have to listen to Turkish radio broadcasts 294 54,7 55,5 55,5 91 16,9 17,2 72,6 41 7,6 7,7 80,4 64 11,9 12,1 92,5 40 7,4 7,5 100,0 530 98,7 100,0 7 1,3 537 100,0 kesinlikle katılmıyorum katılmıyorum kararsızım katılıyorum kesinlikle katılıyorum total Valid cevapsız total Number Percent Valid percent I strongly disagree I disagree Neither agree nor disagree I agree I strongly agree Total unanswered Percent with total The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 373 50.6% of the subjects do not share the idea depicted by the following statement: “I almost forget Turkish but for Turkish broadcasts”. The most relevant reason of this statement lies in the fact that the subjects communicate in Turkish with their families and other Turkish communities, therefore they do not forget Turkish language whether they listen to Turkish broadcastings or not. 31.8% of the subjects, which constitute a considerable part, share this idea. This group is composed of Turks evolving in a context where Turkish is rarely spoken. Increasing the Turkish broadcastings is much more important for this group than for the other group. While 50.5% of the subjects share the following idea: “Thanks to Turkish radio broadcastings performed in Germany, Turkish people’s integration among Germans is provided in a much better way”, 22% of them do not share this view, and 24.6% are doubtful. The rate of integration, which is the main reason of this survey supports both our hypothesis and the fact that German authorities allow Turkish broadcastings in order to ensure a better integration. According to the answers of the survey performed in Berlin with Turkish people, the radios to which the subjects listen the most are: Metropol FM, which broadcasts in Turkish language 24 hours a day in the city of Berlin, comes in first position (62.4%), then Kiss FM, which is in second position (13.8%), and eventually Jam FM which comes in third position with (2,4%). Although this rate seems quite low, those who listen to German speaking radios are the new generation who were born and brought up in Germany. People in this group have German accent when they speak Turkish. It may be possible to draw the attention of this group on Turkish broadcastings with broadcastings in which the announcements are performed in Turkish but playing songs predominantly performed in foreign languages. The General Consul of Köln (Germany), Basa, confirms this requirement as well, saying that there are many demands coming from Turks who desire to have new Turkish radio stations released and Turkish broadcasting hours on the German State Radio WDR (West Deutshe Rundfunk) increased (Interview of Basa, performed on August 25th, 2010). The Turks who live in Germany feel closer to the Turkish broadcastings of Metropol FM and Köln Radio, which broadcast in Germany than the Turkish broadcastings they listen to from Turkey. This situation can be explained by the fact that these radios perform news related to events taking place in Germany, then those taking place in Turkey to end up dealing with the situation of the Turks living there. Therefore, radios willing to draw the attention of the Turks in Germany or in any other country through internet, must take this reality into account. It might result advantageous for such radios to establish certain communication with news centres in those countries, so that they can also provide news regarding Turks living abroad. Note: This scientific study was supported by The Department of Scientific Research Projects of Selcuk University. REFERENCES Avsar, Zakir ve Öngören, Gürsel: Radyo ve Televizyon Hukuku, Radyo ve Televizyon Üst Kurulu Yayını, Ankara, 2003. Aziz, Aysel: Radyo ve Televizyonda Yasal Düzenlemeler, A.Ü. letisim Fakültesi Basın Yayın Uygulama ve Arastırma Merkezi Yayınları, No:1, Ankara, 1996. Aziz, Aysel: Radyo Yayıncılıgı, Nobel Yayınevi, Konya, 2002. Basa, Mustafa Kemal: interview record made with Koln Consulate General in Germany at 10.50 on August 25th, 2010. Bayraktar, Murad: interview record made with WDR Koln Radio at 15.20 on August 8th, 2010 374 Metin Kasim Bektas, Arsev: Siyasal Propaganda, Baglam Yayıncılık, stanbul, 2002. Breitkopf, Klaus (Hrsg.): Rundfunk, Faszination Hörfunk. Mit Beiträgen von Hans Joachim Manger und Rolf Nusser. Hüthig GmbH, Heidelberg, 2007. Cankaya, Özden: “Türkiye’de Radyo Yayıncılıgının Öyküsü”, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, stanbul, 2000. Chantler, Paul ve Harris, Sim: Local Radio Journalism, A division of the Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Ltd., Great Britain, 1997. Diller, Ansgar: Rundfunkpolitikim Dritten Reich, München, 1980. Dussel, Konrad: Deutsche Rundfunkgeschichte. 2. Auflage UVK, Konstanz, 2004. Ergün Tamer: interview made in Berlin Metropol Fm station at 15.50 on March 2nd, 2010. Falkenberg, Karin: Radiohören. Zu einer Bewußtseinsgeschichte, 1933-1950. Hans Falkenberg Verlag/ Institut für Alltagskultur. Haßfurt; Nürnberg, 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturmabteilung, Internet Access Date : 20.05.2010. Kaptan Ali: 1927’den Günümüze Anılarla Radyo-Televizyon, Maltepe Üniversitesi Yayınları No:14, stanbul, 2002. Kasım, Metin: Türkiye’de, Radyo Yayıncılıgının Gelisim Süreci ve Tecimsel Radyolara Bir Bakıs, S.Ü. letisim Fakültesi Dergisi, Ocak, 2009. Klinger, Walter: Nationalsozialistische Rundfunkpolitik 1942-1945, Organisation Program und die Hörer. Diss. Mannheim, 1983. Pekman, Cem: “Yüzyılın Radyosu”, stanbul Radyosu, Yapı Kredi Yayınları, stanbul, 2000. Tekinalp, Sermin: Camera Obscura’dan Synopticon’a Radyo ve Televizyon, Der Yayınları, stanbul, 2003 APPENDIX: SURVEY FORM This survey is carried out intending to measure to what extent Turkish radio broadcasts in Germany meet Turks’ cultural needs and to research the role of these radios in providing Turkish-German connection and friendship. Thank you for taking the time. 1- Sex: M F and 2- Age……….. 3- Birthplace? a) Germany b) Turkey 4- From which city of Turkey or Germany are you? ………………………………………… 5- In what way did you arrive in Germany if born in Turkey? a) Via marriage b) Via asylum c) For working d) For education e) Other…………. The Effects of Turkish Radio Broadcasts Made in Germany on Turkish People Living in Germany 375 6-Educational Status? a) Primary school b) Secondary school c) High school d) University e) Master 7- Which option is more suitable for total monthly income of your family? (Euro) a) up to 1000 b)1000-2000 c)2000-3000 d)3000-4000 e) 4000 and over 8- For how many years have you been living in Germany? a)0-1 b)1-5 c)5-10 d)10-15 e)15 and over 9-How long do you listen to radio broadcasting in Turkish? a) Less than one hour a day b) 1-2 hour a day c) more than 2 hours a day d) 1-2 hours a week e) less often f) never 10- How long do you listen to radio broadcasting in German? a) Less than one hour a day b) 1-2 hour a day c) more than 2 hours a day d) 1-2 hours a week e) less often f) never 11-In which place do you listen to radio at most? a) at home b) in workplace c) in car d) subway e) Other………………… 12- For what purpose do you listen to radio? Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never 13-For news 14-Listening music 15-For fun 16-For finding out advantageous goods and services 17- For not feeling alone 18- What radio station do you listen most? ………………………………….. 19- For what purpose do you listen to Metropol FM at most? a) For news b) Listening to Turkish music c)For fun d)for finding out advantageous goods and services e) Because there is no other Turkish radio 20-What do you think you German level is? a) I don’t know at all b) I know a little c) I know as much as to tell myself d) I know well e) I know very well 21-For meeting your cultural needs, with what tool do you want Turkish broadcasts to reach to you? a) TV b) Radio c) Newspaper d) Internet e) Other…………. 376 Metin Kasim To what extent do you agree with following opinions? I strongly agree I agree Neither agree nor disagree I disagree I strongly disagree 22- I think German broadcasts in Metropol FM are useful 23-Metropol FM importantly contributes to sustenance of Turkish culture 24- Turkish broadcasts make a major contribution to development of Turkish 25- Young people must listen to Turkish broadcasts more often 26- I almost forget Turkish but for Turkish broadcasts 27-The number of radios broadcasting in Turkish must be increased 28-Turkish broadcasts provide Turkish unity and solidarity in Germany 29- Turkish broadcasts make a significant contribution to integration of Turks in Germany 30-Programs intended to connect Germans with Turks in broadcasts must be increased 31- I listen to Turkish broadcasts mostly via internet 32- I listen to Turkish broadcasts mostly via FM frequency 33-I do not think Turkish broadcasting in Germany as so much necessary 34-I could not improve my German adequately since I constantly listen Turkish broadcasts 35- Turkish radio broadcasts affect my work performance positively 36- Since Turkish radio broadcasts make me feel like in Turkey, I like living in Germany. 37- Since my German is not good, I have to listen to Turkish radio broadcasts
27 Ekim 2009 Salı
Selçuk Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Fotoğrafçılık ve Grafik Anabilim Dalı Başkanı Yrd. Doç. Dr. Metin Kasım’ın Almanya’yı anlatan fotoğraflarının yer aldığı sergiyi birlikte açtı. Daha sonra Prof. Dr. Claus Schönig’in Oturum Başkanlığı’nda sempozyuma geçildi. 10 Ekim’e kadar sürecek sempozyumda 5 ayrı ülkeden 100 bilim adamı 88 tebliğle Türk-Alman ilişkilerinin dünü, bugünü ve yarınını ele alacak.